Ghostwriting is when important contribution was put in creating of a publication without the name of the ghostwriter being disclosed as one of the authors or without his role played in acknowledgements of the publication.
Guest authorship occurs when the author’s contribution is very little or not at all and even though he/she is the named author/co-author of the publication.
Both phenomena are a manifestation of scientific negligence and all detected cases will be brought into the open including the informing of proper parties (institutions employing the authors, scientific societies, scientific editors associations, etc). Counteracting them the editors demand from the authors that they reveal the input of individual authors in the publication (i.e. information who is the author of concept, provisions, methods, protocol and so forth). The primary author bears the responsibility for the submitted manuscript.
Example of contribution: Jan Kowalski (a,e) Stefan Nowak (b,c), Jan Sosnowski (d,f)
|(a) ||concept |
|(b) ||drawing up the grant application |
|(c) ||gathering material for studies |
|(d) ||laboratory tests |
|(e) ||statistics |
|(f) ||drawing up the text and references |
The editors requires the sources for financing, the input of research bodies associations and others entities (“financial disclosure”). The editors monitor and record any aspects of scientific negligence particularly the breaking and violating of ethical principles mandatory in science.